250th anniversary of Captain Cook's voyage to Australia
The Australian Government has announced a package of measures to mark the 250th Anniversary of James Cook's first voyage to Australia and the Pacific in 1770.
To access the Australian Government’s official Endeavour 250 website, visit www.Endeavour250.gov.au
About the Endeavour 250 program
In 1768, British explorer, surveyor, navigator and cartographer James Cook embarked on his first Pacific voyage aboard His Majesty’s Bark (HMB) Endeavour.
The historic voyage made possible the charting of the east coast of Australia and the North and South Islands of New Zealand, and left a profound legacy of scientific investigation, including the first large-scale hydrographic surveys and a significant contribution to the measurement of longitude.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples had been living on this land for more than 60,000 years by the time the Endeavour crew made first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 April 1770. The encounters between these Europeans and the custodians of the world’s oldest continuing living culture marks a significant moment in the history of Australia.
To mark the 250th anniversary of the voyage, the Australian Government is funding a range of exhibitions, activities and events through the Endeavour 250 program. Marking this anniversary will allow all Australians to reflect on, discuss and think about the lasting impact that this voyage has had on us all.
It is an opportunity for Australians of all backgrounds to listen to and learn from each other’s stories, to understand what took place, and to discuss what it means for our future. It is a chance to reflect on our histories and to connect our cultures.
Some of the activities originally planned to mark the anniversary have been cancelled or postponed in response to official medical advice on coronavirus (COVID-19).
A number of these activities will continue to be held and will provide an opportunity for all Australians to reflect on our past, get a greater insight into the experiences of Indigenous Australians, James Cook and the Endeavour and all of the factors that have shaped our modern, diverse and vibrant nation.
The Return of Cultural Heritage Project
The arrival of Captain Cook in 1770 marked the start of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural heritage being removed overseas.
With support from the Australian Government, the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is leading the Return of Cultural Heritage Project (RoCH), which seeks to secure the return of culturally significant heritage materials. This includes – but is not limited to – returning artefacts, documentary records, and artworks from overseas collecting institutions to Australian Indigenous communities.
The RoCH will run until 30 June 2020. Find out more about the project on the AIATSIS website.
Cultural Connections Initiative (National Museum of Australia)
The NMA's Cultural Connections Initiative aims to develop the professional skills and capabilities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural practitioners. By co-creating platform's that empower them to share their cultural knowledge and histories, the initiative aims to create pathways that strengthen engagement and knowledge exchange between cultural institutions and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities. It consists of 2 programs:
The Encounters Fellowships program was a 12-week tailored professional development opportunity for 6 cultural practitioners to develop and design local community projects, as well as learn more about cultural institutions, collections and how they can connect them to their communities, histories and stories. The Fellows graduated from the program in November 2019.
The Cultural Connections program is working with established regional leadership groups, such as land councils, shire councils, Aboriginal Advisory Committees and arts organisations to employ cultural practitioners and invest in community-led projects aimed at strengthening local cultural practices and knowledge exchange.
Kamay Botany Bay National Park Master Plan
The Australian and NSW Governments have together committed funding to upgrade visitor, transport, educational and commemorative infrastructure at Kamay Botany Bay – the site where James Cook and the crew of the Endeavour first came ashore on 29 April 1770.
The project includes the following works:
- a new visitor building
- an upgrade of the main visitor and heritage precinct, including an 850-metre circuit with a wheelchair-accessible pathway within a revegetated bush landscape, and new interpretation materials
- construction of new ferry wharves at La Perouse and Kurnell
- precinct conservation and restoration works, including to the historically significant Alpha House, existing monuments (Captain Cook monument, Solander monument and the Isaac Smith memorial) and the landscape
- the establishment of a collection garden to commemorate the work of the Endeavour’s botanists, Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander.
The Government has also commissioned 3 commemorative installations – designed by Indigenous artists – to be erected at Kamay Botany Bay. The sculptures are based on concepts placed on public exhibition for community feedback in 2019, and were selected by the Kamay 2020 Project Board. The works feature both Aboriginal and European viewpoints on the arrival of the Endeavour in 1770.
For more information about the sculptures, visit the NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment website.
The Australian National Maritime Museum’s (ANMM) Encounters 2020 program recognises both the achievements of James Cook’s first voyage to the Pacific in the HMB Endeavour and the lasting effect it has had on Australia’s First Peoples and the nation as a whole. The program will explore stories of contact, encounters and transformation involving Indigenous, migrant and other communities from Australia and beyond, and will create new opportunities for the exploration of Cook's legacy.
On 27 March 2020, the ANMM announced the suspension of the planned circumnavigation of Australia by the replica HMB Endeavour and the companion touring exhibition ‘Looking Back, Looking Forward’.
There are a number of film and digital projects as part of Encounters 2020 that explore a variety of views on the Endeavour and Cook’s 1770 voyage in the Pacific. For details about the films, videos and games that will be released to mark the anniversary, view the ANMM’s Film and Digital page.
A number of resources are also available for teachers and students that encourage exploration of the Encounters 2020 program’s dual perspectives. To access these resources, visit the ANMM’s Encounters 2020 Education Resources page.
Endeavour Voyage Exhibition: The untold stories of Cook and the First Australians (National Museum of Australia)
The National Museum of Australia (NMA) will hold a free online exhibition exploring the stories and legacies of the Endeavour’s voyage along the east coast of Australia in 1770.
The exhibition charts the journey of Cook and his crew along Australia’s coastline, delving into the past, present and future of 8 Indigenous communities along the way. Visitors will engage with stories, objects and multimedia that reflect all sides of this complex turning point in Australia’s history.
The online exhibition is now open. To access this exhibition, visit the NMA’s website.
Cook and the Pacific Exhibition (National Library of Australia)
The National Library of Australia's (NLA) Cook and the Pacific exhibition was held from 22 September 2018 to 10 February 2019 in Canberra. This exhibition allowed visitors to follow in Cook's footsteps and explore the Pacific through the eyes of the British voyagers and the First Nations Peoples they met. For more information visit the NLA’s website.
The exhibition attracted around 80,000 visitors, including 4,000 school students. More than 135,000 people enjoyed associated activities, including online and onsite public programs.
Endeavour 250 website
We are developing a website to mark the anniversary and provide information from a range of perspectives. The website will be the national portal for Australians to access resources and information about the anniversary, including government-funded initiatives and online/digital community activities, and educational resources for teachers and students. It will also bring together collection material held by the National Library of Australia, the Australian National Maritime Museum and National Museum of Australia.
Community organisations will be able to submit details of their online anniversary-related activities for publication on the digital platform, which will be launched in April 2020.
You can access the official Endeavour 250 website at www.Endeavour250.gov.au.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Endeavour 250?
- Endeavour 250 is the Australian Government’s program of activities marking 250 years since the HMB Endeavour’s voyage along the east coast of Australia in 1770.
- After observing the transit of Venus in Tahiti and mapping the North and South Islands of New Zealand, the Endeavour sailed west.
- The crew first sighted the mainland of Australia on 19 April 1770. James Cook and some of his crew landed at Kamay Botany Bay on 29 April 1770.
- They spent the following months charting the continent’s eastern coastline, encountering Australian flora and fauna and interacting with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples from different nations.
What is significant about His Majesty’s Bark (HMB) Endeavour’s Pacific voyage in 1770?
- The HMB Endeavour voyage marks a significant moment in Australia’s history.
- Led by James Cook, a British explorer, surveyor, navigator and cartographer, the voyage contributed to western knowledge of geography, navigation and natural science, which is still used today.
- It left a profound legacy of scientific investigation, including the first large-scale hydrographic surveys and a significant contribution to the measurement of longitude.
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, occupied the Australian continent for more than 60,000 years.
- To understand the significance of the voyage, it is important to reflect on its impact from all perspectives, and to learn about the history, science and values that connect all Australians.
Why is the Australian Government choosing to mark this anniversary?
- We want to encourage respectful reflection on the legacy of the voyage and positive connections between Australians - sharing their diverse views on this legacy.
- The anniversary is an opportunity to understand the Australian story – reflecting on more than 60,000 years of custodianship through to more recent migrant stories. The anniversary marks a point in time from which we embarked on a shared journey.
- The anniversary presents a chance for Australians of all backgrounds to listen to and learn from each other’s stories. It is a chance to understand what happened and to discuss what it means for our future.
How is the Australian Government marking the anniversary? What activities and events are being supported as part of Endeavour 250?
- The Australian Government is supporting a range of activities to mark the 250th anniversary of James Cook’s voyage to Australia. These activities offer different perspectives and insights into the voyage.
- Unfortunately, some of the activities originally planned to mark the anniversary have been cancelled or postponed in response to official medical advice on coronavirus (COVID-19).
- To find out more about Endeavour 250 activities, visit the About the Anniversary section above.
How have the perspectives of Indigenous Australians been considered in the planning of commemorative events and activities?
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and communities are critical partners in the development of the Endeavour 250 program throughout Australia.
- The Australian Government is supporting a number of significant initiatives with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities such as:
- The Return of Cultural Heritage Project, led by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, which is working on the return of Indigenous cultural items and artefacts held overseas to Australian Indigenous communities.
- The Encounters Fellowships, led by the National Museum of Australia, which is an opportunity for 6 Indigenous cultural practitioners to participate in a tailored professional development program.
- The Cultural Connections Program, led by the National Museum of Australia, is partnering with local organisations to support community-led projects that strengthen local cultural practices and knowledge transmission.
- Development of a new interpretive centre in the Town of Seventeen Seventy.
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives are paramount in all events, activities and exhibitions of the project ensuring that we are reflecting on shared histories.
- All Australians are encouraged to engage in a range of activities and to share their diverse views and perspectives on the anniversary. This is an important step in having a safe and respectful national conversation on our history and on our shared future.
Will Endeavour 250 events and activities be changed or cancelled in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic?
- Some of the activities originally planned to mark the anniversary have been cancelled or postponed in response to official medical advice on coronavirus (COVID-19).
- In marking this anniversary we want to protect public safety. All decisions about activities will be informed by official medical advice, which is being updated regularly. We will also update information on Endeavour 250 activities regularly.
- For more information on the current status of COVID-19, visit the Department of Health’s website.
Will the replica HMB Endeavour still voyage around the coastline of Australia as part of the Australian National Maritime Museum’s (ANMM) Encounters Around Australia program?
- The ANMM has suspended the voyages of the replica HMB Endeavour and the companion touring exhibition ‘Looking Back, Looking Forward’ to ensure the health and safety of the public and voyage crew given the current COVID-19 pandemic. You can read more about this decision on the ANMM’s website.
- The ANMM will continue to mark the anniversary through its Encounters 2020 program, which will consist of a number of film and digital projects, and a range of educational resources for teachers and students.
The Department of Education, Skills and Employment has developed a package of 8 rich learning sequences. These sequences consider the complex context of the voyage, the arrival of Europeans in Australia and their contacts with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. You can access the learning sequences via the Resources page at www.Endeavour250.gov.au.
For media requests about the anniversary, please visit our Media Centre.
Find out more
- Media release: Encounters 2020 tour suspended
- Media release: Encounters 2020 sets sail to mark James Cook’s voyage (21 August 2019)
- Media release: Honouring Captain James Cook’s Voyage (22 January 2019)
- Media release: Cook’s landing site to be recognised for 250th anniversary (28 April 2018)
- Media release: Sculptures to commemorate the meeting of two cultures at Kamay Botany Bay (14 February 2020)
- Encounters 2020 Endeavour itinerary
- Kamay Botany Bay Master Plan